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Long-Distance Cycling

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multi-day or single day? They are different for sure.

Ultimately, it boils down to have more than enough food and water to get you to the next spot for food and water. Everything else is "bonus"
I have yet to do a long distance (or any distance) "trip", i.e. overnight. I do have extensive backpacking experience (including Lusk Creek and River to River) so for me the bicycle part is simply covering any mechanical needs a bicycle may need. Things that come to mind are mostly(?) obvious like spare tubes, tire lever, multitool, chain tool and replacement master link. Depending on the severity of the terrain a spare derailleur hanger might be in order as well. Many people feel good about some ad-hoc repair materials such as Duct Tape, Zip ties, and/or simple wire. And of course you have to figure out how to carry all your stuff on a bike. I picked up some Ortlieb Panniers for that purpose.

The rest of my prep for something like this would be a rather standard backpacking packing list.
I have yet to do a long distance (or any distance) "trip", i.e. overnight. I do have extensive backpacking experience
I've also never done an overnight bike ride, but I really want to try it soon. Now that I have a gravel bike, I'm going to try to do it more.

We do love to go backpacking, though.
I'm just about to launch on my second bike tour, Valmeyer, IL to Marietta, GA. I spend a lot of time obsessing about the route with RWGPS and GaiaGPS. Heatmaps in RWGPS along with the mapped bicycle routes in the OSM Cycle layer help me pick safe roads. GaiaGPS and The Dyrt and good for finding camping locations. When those aren't feasible, I'm down to Google Maps to find a hotel.

I'm using four Rhinowalk panniers that I bought on Amazon. They aren't as sturdy as Ortlieb but were half the price. Since I'm a smooth pavement boy, they seem to be holding up just fine.
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In addition to the above comments, I make sure and have Ibuprofen in case there is an injury or acting up tendon, cartilage or ligament, and also salt tabs for long or overnight rides. Found out early on that without adequate water and especially salt when excessively sweating, I would cramp up usually after a ride or that night. Salty soft pretzels after a sweaty ride are my favorite for electrolytes and complex carb replacement.